Tai Chi Frames

Small, medium or large?
A Tai Chi Chuan form can be practiced at different frames although often times each frame has a specialized form. The frame is not synonymous with the form although it is not entirely independent of it either. Each frame has it’s own benefits. Generally, the frame is first set by the width and depth of the stance, the upper body follows the lower.

The old man frame. This is practicing naturally without thinking about the frame too much or using effort. This is a good way for beginners to learn a form or to maintain your practice if you are sick or to busy to practice properly. It has meditative benefits and is good for relaxing or practicing “fan sung.” To practice this frame, take a natural walking step forward into your or bow stance. Base your upper body from this natural stance. You should not sweat when you practice this frame.

Second in popularity is the medium frame. It is commonly taught first, sometimes it is called the tiger frame. To practice at this frame take a natural walking step forward into bow stance and mark the spot where your big toe is. Lift your foot again and place your heel in that spot. Base your frame of this stance for the medium frame.

The Large frame tai chi stance can be a little wider than the medium frame stance, but it is also deeper. This frame requires some understanding of the different muscle groups of the legs and kua, without this understanding you could damage your knees practicing this frame too much. The frame is more for conditioning and it is very good if your goal is push hands.

Small frame tai chi is difficult. It is very hard to see what someone is doing when they are practicing the small frame. The movements are small and internal. Usually, someone that can do the small frame well can also fight. I personally have not learned small frame, although I have been adjusted into it a few times. Though the stance and movements were small I was quickly sweating with burning leg muscles.

Finding Flow

I use the tagline Find Your Flow for promoting my outdoor Tai Chi classes. This is because for me practicing TCC is largely about finding and synchronizing the flow of breath and movement.

What flow is not. Momentum could easily be confused with flow in Tai Chi practice. Momentum in moving goes against the principle of “when one part moves all parts move, when one part stops all parts stop.” The movement should come from the flow not the flow from the movement.

Moving slowly with the breath but without the principals of Tai Chi including no peng, no sinking, being double weighted and other postural mistakes. All of these things will impede flow.

Some concepts to help you find your flow.


Xian Tian. In the internal Chinese martial arts, there is a concept called Xian Tien. This is translated as “before heaven” or “pre-heaven” or “pre-natal” and it refers to one’s raw energy in a natural state, before anything is added to or taken from it. Xian Tien chi is something that we already have, the practice is first to removing blocks so it can flow freely.

Short Flows and Breathing

Short, repeating flows of movement, coordinated with the breath are a useful and enjoyable training practice. It can be fun to train along with a spotify playlist. In Vinyasa yoga practice a flow starts and ends in the same postion so that it can be repeated indefinitely, there is also room for variation to work on different techniques or areas of the body. In between the start and end of the flow there are repeating key points. The key is that the movement follows the breath.

This concept has always been a part many martial arts, in Xing Yi Chuan the wu xing quan is a series of five flows, while the linking or cascade forms are larger repeating cycles. In Yi Chuan Si Li is basically the same concept. In tai chi chuan the practice is not as widely used but it is there, the sequence of grasping the swallows tail is a flow that can be repeated. Most Bagua forms are very cyclical. A great basis for developing flows are the Tien Kan exercises found in the YiZong schools. This whole practice is a series of short cyclical motifs that are so elemental they can take on the forms of any of the three arts.

Hebei Style Xing Yi Form

In addition to Tai Chi, I practice the related art of Xing Yi Chuan. Xing Yi is a good compliment to Tai Chi and the two arts were once taught side by side in the Yi Zong school.

Wu Xing Sheng Ke – The Five Elements Transforming Ta Lu Set. This set teaches the ban bu – half step method to use distance to your advantage.

Stillness in Xing Yi training.

Xing Yi training requires a lot of stillness, holding a few postures for long periods is a big part of the training. A typical two-hour training session with Shifu Chao only required the space of a yoga mat to practice on. Forms were taught only after a lot of sweating and standing then only one at a time if we were lucky.

Stillness in Breath

Another example of stillness within Xing Yi is pausing the breath. While I was training at a seminar with the great Xing Yi Master Luo De Xiu we learned to pause breaths between one of the movements. At first, interrupting the breathing cycle seemed at odds with everything I had learned before in internal martial arts. All of my teachers emphasized linking movement with the breath. It took me a long time to realize that this is still true with pausing the breath, that is that it is the total stopping of all external and internal movement, to get next-level still the breath has to stop temporarily as well. From this stillness you can observe yourself and your opponent.

Tai Chi For for Free – The Four Energies

The Four Energies of Tai Chi are:

1. Peng – Ward Off
2. Lu – Roll-Back
3. Gi – Press
4. An – Push

These forces, energies or concepts form the basis for all movement in Tai chi. The outer shape of the movements are not difficult for a beginner to learn, but the internal structure is difficult.

The first energy is Peng, or ward off and it is a long-range, expansive usually upward-moving power.

The second energy is Lu or roll-back. It uses the energy of absorbing and leading. It is also used to coil force.

The third energy, Gi is press, it is usually horizontal straight out and is short-range penetrating power. It is difficult to learn.

The fourth energy, An or push is simple but powerful even for the beginning tai chi student.

Below Mr. Ang corrects and adds some insights.

Tai Chi Cheat Sheet, some important concepts and terms.

Tai Chi Chuan is a martial art that combines internal strength and energy cultivation on a profound level. Today we can enjoy the health benefits of Tai Chi Chuan practice without subjecting ourselves to the bitterness of the martial arts training aspect. Still, it is important to know that Tai Chi Chuan is not a performance and should have power if needed. The concepts below are the basis of Tai Chi practice and are called the Thirteen postures or techniques. The translations of the original terms are from my teachers or my own understanding and are subjective and may not match up with some books.

Tai Chi Chuan has four fundamental energies.
Tai Chi Chuan has 4 energies that all the postures stem from:

Peng: Ward Off – long range force – Peng Jin: Epanding force in general
Lu: Rolling back
Gi: Short-range force
An: Pushing with dropping force

Tai Chi Chuan has four secondary techniques:
They are:
Zhou: Elbow strike
Kou: Shoulder strike
Cai: Pluck or yank
Leih: Split or rend

The five directions in Tai Chi:
The five directions are – forward, back, right, left and centered. This is obvious and the potential to move in any direction is found in every Tai Chi posture. Less obvious is that every posture is stable from incoming force from any direction. The directions, primary and secondary techniques together create the 13 postures of Tai Chi Chuan.

Some important Accupoints for Tai Chi practice are:

Yong Quan – The bubble point – The weight can land here
Dan Tien – Energy Field – Can generate and control force through the waist
Ming Men – top of the sacrum – needs to be unlocked to control whole-body movement

The Health Benefits of Tai Chi Exercise and How to Actually Achieve Them

The health benefits of Tai Chi practice are now scientifically documented, but how can you be sure you’re going to maximize them in your training?

Why go to the trouble of learning Tai Chi to improve your health, when you could go for a forty-five-minute walk or swim? If you are thinking of taking up Tai Chi practice for its health benefits you should ask yourself this first. Tai Chi Chuan practiced on an external level will not be more beneficial to your health than these activities which are proven to be very beneficial themselves. Tai chi practiced properly can give you more benefits than these activities but for a beginner, learning authentic tai chi is more difficult to learn than swimming.

To answer how tai chi exercise benefits health some background info is required. There is much variation in length and character among the different styles of tai chi but all of them were created from thirteen core posture concepts.

These concepts, in turn, are derived from four primary energies/forces or jins. The four energies are 1. Peng, 2. Lu, 3. Ji and 4. An. These are the same in all styles of tai chi and are what make tai chi practice so beneficial to one’s health. You can read more about the four energies and watch a video here.

Peng Jin is the basis for all the others is the most important for both the health and self-defense benefits. Peng is usually translated as ward off but it is a difficult concept to translate directly. The idea is expansive whole-body power that protects by first meeting, grounding and then repelling incoming force. Many people that practice tai chi have the wrong idea that one should just get out of the way on the incoming force by moving and lightly putting a hand out to deflect. This is usually based on a misunderstanding of the tai chi classics saying four ounces of force deflects one thousand pounds. This type of tai chi will only give the same health benefits as a walk, a swim or perhaps a simple and light chi kung exercise. Again, those activities are all easier to learn.

On the other hand, making the development of peng jin your primary goal when you practice your tai chi form will give you a lot of benefits that other conventional low-impact exercise cannot.

Practicing peng jin requires the body to be deeply rooted and connected in a natural, relaxed way. The posture lines up through properly aligned joints, muscles, and skeletal structure and is directed to the specific area that will be the focal point of peng jin. In tai chi this is usually a forearm, palm, elbow, or shoulder. This type of training strengthens the leg and sinks and improves the balance, two immediate health benefits.

When your movements are connected and working together to generate peng in this way all parts of the body become stronger together. In training peng jin areas tension or weakness in the body must be identified and corrected or there will be a weak link in whole-body force. Releasing holding overly tight muscle groups gives you the health benefits of more energy and reduced anxiety. This type of practice is slightly deeper and requires dedicated training with a good tai chi teacher.

It is amazing how much we hold in our muscles and postural tension. A unique practice concept of tai chi training is fan song. I don’t really know how to best describe this term. In the west when we say relax or chill out we are usually reffering to someones mental state. Fan song of sung is a feeling in the body. It is akin to the state of the muscles during sleep but it allows the body to maintaining and change it’s posture and structure.

When you are in this state of sung you’re not using any unnecessary energy, instead, the body feels like it is resting, even recharging. It is a nice feeling, almost like letting go of your muscles without collapsing. If there are muscle groups, ligaments, or joints that are holding tension it will be difficult to be song in these areas, to fix this you may need to practice a static posture that releases the holding area. This practice will greatly reduce anxiety and give you more energy. In conjunction with the movement, I’m sure it helps to improve circulation as well.

Many people practice Tai Chi Chuan or internal martial arts for years and never feel a sensation of chi, some don’t believe it exists, these people would be better off doing another exercise or different martial art.

Another big health benefit to practicing Tai Chi that you can learn to work with your breath and by extension chi. Breathing is good for focus and concentration as well as energy levels.

Preparation and Commencement Form – Hé tài jí.

Tai Chi beginning movements in the Yang Family 108 Form.

The first movement of the 108 tai chi form is opening to a shoulder width stance and putting peng jin, or warding off energy, into the elbows and arms.

The beginning of the Tai Chi form teaches the concepts of opening and closing. Here I am practicing loosely, just focusing on opening and closing, not too much on getting the form perfect. Opening and uniting is another translation. First, you open horizontally, everything opens then unites, second, you open and close vertically. These two techniques are very important, they teach you how to open and close with all parts of the body simultaneously. After the Tai Chi beginning form thing’s get complicated because in many of the postures one part is opening while another is closing.

Sorry about the music, I had to over-write the background music because YouTube was blocking it for copyright.

Chen Pan Ling 99 Tai Chi Chuan Form

I am currently studying this form with Edward Hines. The way Laoshi does this tai chi form looks different but after he explained it to me and gave me some posture corrections I realized it was quite powerful and did not stray from the principles of Yang style Tai Chi Chuan.

  1. Huan Yun Standing
  2. Commence Tai Chi
  3. Ward Off
  4. Play the Guitar / Lute / Pipa
  5. Grasp Sparrows Tail
  6. Diagonal Single Whip

Outdoor Tai Chi Class in Letterkenny

My teacher, Master Li, had me practice outside year round and I’ve been wanting to do an outdoor tai chi class forever, but because of the weather in Ireland, especially Donegal, it always seemed risky. Since the pandemic however outdoor exercise has become more common.

Tai Chi class starting in Ballymacool park, near the old house, in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. 1:30pm 10 euros or 5 classes for 40. The classes begin when the restrictions on organized exercise is lifted. Ballymacool park has better parking access then the Letterkenny town park on a Saturday.

This class will teach the first section of the Yang 108 public style with a special emphasis on Master Li’s breathing method. This is a very good place to start for those new to Tai Chi.

Wear a raincoat, hat gloves etc.. Class will only be cancelled for steady heavy-ish rain.

The Yang 108 Tai Chi Form

A third-ish generation long form the Yang style Tai Chi

  1. Preparation & Commencement
  2. Grasp Bird’s Tail (R)
  3. Grasp Birds Tail (L)
  4. Ward off Upward – Peng
  5. Pull Back – Lu
  6. Press Forward – Gi
  7. Push – An
  8. Sing Whip
  9. Lift Hands
  10. Stork Cools it’s Wings
  11. Brush Knee Twist Step (L)
  12. Play the Pipa
  13. Brush Knee Twist Step (L)
  14. Brush Knee Twist Step (R)
  15. Brush Knee Twist Step (L)
  16. Play the Pipa
  17. Brush Knee Twist Step (L)
  18. Chop With Fist
  19. Step Up Parry Punch
  20. Sealing and closing
  21. Carry the Tiger to the Mountain
  22. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  23. Diagonal Single Whip
  24. Punch Under Elbow
  25. Repulse Monkey (R)
  26. Repulse Monkey (L)
  27. Repulse Monkey (R)
  28. Repulse Monkey (L)
  29. Repulse Monkey (R)
  30. Slanting Flying
  31. Lift Hands
  32. Stork Cools his Wings
  33. Brush Knee Twist Step
  34. Needle at Sea Bottom
  35. Fan Through Back
  36. Turn, Chop with Fist
  37. Step Up, Parry Punch
  38. Ward Off, Pull, Press, Push
  39. Single Whip
  40. Cloud Hands
  41. Single Whip
  42. High Pat on Horse
  43. Separate Foot
  44. Separate Foot (L)
  45. Turn, Kick With Sole
  46. Brush Knee Twist Step ( L & R)
  47. Step Up, Parry Punch
  48. Turn, Chop With Fist
  49. Step Up, Parry Punch
  50. Brush Foot (R)
  51. Hit the Tiger (L)
  52. Hit the Tiger (R)
  53. Right Foot Kicks Up
  54. Double Wind Pierce the Ears
  55. Brush Foot (L)
  56. Turn, Kick with Sole
  57. Chop with fist
  58. Step up, parry, punch
  59. Closing up
  60. Carry Tiger to the Mountain
  61. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  62. Horizontal Single Whip
  63. Part Wild Horses Mane (R)
  64. Part Wild Horses Mane (L)
  65. Part Wild Horses Mane (R)
  66. Grasp Bird’s Tail
  67. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  68. Single Whip
  69. Fair Lady at Shuttles (1)
  70. Fair Lady at Shuttles (2)
  71. Fair Lady at Shuttles (3)
  72. Fair Lady at Shuttles (4)
  73. Grasp Bird’s Tail (L)
  74. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  75. Single Whip
  76. Cloud Hands
  77. Single Whip
  78. Snake Creeps Down
  79. Golden Rooster on One Leg
  80. Golden Rooster on One Leg
  81. Repulse Monkey ( R & L)
  82. Slanting Flying
  83. Lift Hands
  84. Stork Cools Wings
  85. Brush Knee Twist Step (L)
  86. Needle at Sea Bottom
  87. Fan Through Back
  88. White Snake Flicks Tongue
  89. Step, Parry, Punch
  90. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  91. Single Whip
  92. Cloud Hands
  93. Single Whip
  94. High Pat on Horse
  95. Cross Hands
  96. Cross Kick
  97. Brush Knee, Puch Down
  98. Peng, Lu, Gi, An
  99. Single Whip
  100. Snake Creeps Down
  101. Step up to Seven Stars
  102. Retreat to Ride Tiger
  103. The Lotus Sweep
  104. Shoot Tiger
  105. Chop with Fist
  106. Step Up, Parry Punch
  107. Closing Up
  108. Conclusion